The cookie settings on this website are set to 'allow all cookies' to give you the very best possible experience. If you continue without changing your settings, we will accept your consent. However, if you wish to change your browser settings at anytime go to www.aboutcookies.org for information on how to do this.

To find out more about our Cookies Policy please click here

Epidemiology and causes

Dry eye syndrome has a higher prevalence amongst women and those over 60 years old; however, it is an extremely common eye condition and has a wide range of causes, including:


Medical Conditions

  • Systemic diseases (Sjogrens syndrome, RA (Rheumatoid Arthritis), Lupus erythematosus, Stevens Johnson, thyroid disease, Bell’s palsy)
  • Eye conditions (ocular rosacea, corneal dystrophies)
  • Rosacea
  • Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD)
  • Eyelid conditions (lagophthalmos, ptosis)
  • Eye injuries and burns
  • Conditions of the eyelid, such as blepharitis
  • Vitamin A deficiency
  • Neurological lesions (e.g. Riley-Day syndrome)
  • Absence/abnormality of lacrimal gland/ductules
  • Idiopathic reasons
  • Blink disorders
  • Blepharitis anterior or posterior
  • Ocular surface disease/allergic conjunctivitus




Medications

  • Systematic drug side effects (antihistamines, diuretics, beta blockers, HRT, oral contraceptives, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs))
  • Chemotherapy and radiation
  • HRT
  • Preservatives in topical treatments




Surgery

  • LASIK surgery
  • Blepharoplasty
  • Refractive surgery




Biological factors

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Hormonal (e.g menopause)




Lifestyle factors

  • Diet
  • Lack of sleep
  • Contact Lenses
  • Prolonged computer use (or portabel devices with screens)
  • Botox




Environmental

  • Air conditioning, car heaters, air currents
  • Smoky and dusty environments
  • Air pressure changes (e.g. on a plane)